The basic structure and function of a CNC machine is very similar to that of the FDM 3D printer, however, with a replacement of hot end to a router
A CNC router parts kit is an amazing tool for any manufacturer and designer. It is an automatic machine that operates using a computer numerical control system using G-code. It thereby allows the maker to perform cutting and carving action. The process involves an automatic and thus accurate cutting of a variety of materials. The CNC machine is hence very similar in ways of working as an FDM 3D printer machine. However, the basic difference is the inclusion and replacement of the hot end of a printer with a router in CNC.
Many of the CNC router machines are by default available in basic utility functions that come with only 3-axis. These machines are nevertheless also differing in variety, designs, and quality too. The least price that one may get for 3-axis machines thereby would be around $200. More advanced CNC machines offer 4th and 5th axis as well.
18 Steps to Build a CNC Router
The guide will help you to develop your own CNC router parts kit in just 18 simple DIY steps. The steps include:
Step 1: Design the Tools and Materials For CNC
There is two design in DIY CNC router parts kit. The first one is the moving table design and the other is the moving gantry design. The moving gantry design is more reliable and convenient in terms of size. So, we are going to build it. It encompasses a cutting envelop of 65x65cm. The machine is thus best for hardwood, plywood, and plastic materials. For harder material we recommend you to build a CNC mill. The x, y, and z-axis lengths of the machines 620mm, 730mm, and 150 mm respectively.
We recommend you to buy a set of 3 linear motion kit of 3-axis. Similarly, for x-axis and y-axis balls screws are the perfect option for linear motion. For the z-axis, M10 quality stainless steel threaded rod is a recommendation for a linear motion drive system. Kress router spindle with 43mm flange, 3Nm stepper motor with VDF speed control. It all costs around 1500euros.
Step 2: Setting Up the X-Axis
The x-axis forms the basic part of the CNC router parts kit. It comprises 4 components of 30/60 aluminum extrusions and two pieces of 15mm thick endplates. The metal cap helps make an M10 thread hole in two 6.8mm holes in extrusion. Clamping both endplates is necessary to support smooth drilling. It also requires holes in the middle of the plates for bearing blocks. The sides need four holes to support a motor mount. Holding the leveling feet requires 4 aluminum blocks of 50x50x20 with m5bolts and t-nuts.
Step 3: Plates on The Gantry Side
The gantry plates in the CNC router parts kit comprise 15mm thick aluminum plates. It, however, requires a precise hole at the right points. Therefore, a center punch is of great help. Similarly, a center drill is necessary to make perfectly guided drill bit holes. A lathe also helps in drilling perfect holes. The last step is taping the holes of the M8 thread.
Step 4: Assembling Process of The Gantry
The trickiest part of designing a gantry in cnc router parts kit is getting linear rails in the correct lining. It must be along the edge of the plate. Lining up, therefore, clamping aluminum profiles makes things easy for you. One thing hence to make sure is the distance between rails and entire length must be uniform.
Step 5: Setting Up the Y-Axis Carriage
Y-axis carriage in cnc router parts kit comprises one plate having 8 linear bearings. Drilling nevertheless must be precise so that z-axis and y-axis linear bearings must attach to the plate. This is because even the slightest misarrangement would rather make the bearings to jam. High-quality digital calipers thereby help in correctly aligning the rail and bearings.
Step 6: Setting Up the Z-Axis
The alignment of the z-axis is exactly as similar to that of the y-axis. Two plastic pieces are helpful here to serve as spacers. This thus helps in spacing the rail and the edge of the plate. Because of the lack of the proper mill setup, instead of a stepper motor, a different motor mount works well. We hence carve it out of the plastic. This, therefore, is attached by an M10 rod. The router motor here is with 43mm clamping ring that exactly fits the Kress router. Furthermore, a water cool spindle is also feasible to use.
Step7: Setting Up Timing Bels and Pulleys
To stop getting the motor coming into the way, the use of a pulley and timing belt is a recommendation. Here we use a 9mm HTD5 belt and pulley.
Step 8: Mounting the Motors
Motor mounts are piecing from aluminum tubing. You can use square pieces of aluminum tubing by yourself. These mounts slide in and out to provide tension to the timing belt. Hole saw is helpful thereby in making a hole in mounts. This thus helps in keeping the shaft in the center.
Step 9: Working on Bearing Blocks
Bearing blocks for CNC router parts kit comprises 50mm round bar stock of aluminum for X-axis and Y-axis. After inserting the bolt inside, they made it to get tight against the bearings. This hence helps in attaching the timing pulley with it.
Step 10: Mounting Drive Nut on Z-Axis
For mounting drive nut standard high-quality M10 threaded rod is used. The rod comprises a small piece of Delrin. This is because of its self-lubricating and wearing resistance properties. Also, a special mount nut is recommended to cut out from 12mm acrylic hold by a bolt. The bolt thereby helps in spinning the nut inside the mount.
Step 11: Mounting Drive Nut for X-Axis and Y-Axis
For the x-axis and y-axis, a different nut drive mount is recommended from a piece of aluminum. Here instead of a holder, we use a lathe having four jaw chunks. The dimensions of the holders or lathe must be correct to avoid any jamming.
Step 12: Mounting Motor for Z-Axis
The mounting motor for the z-axis differs from its counterparts and comprises 12mm of acrylic. The 12mm of acrylic works just fine however, we can replace it with aluminum.
Step 13: Cutting the Bed
Cutting the bed makes the final step in making cnc router parts kit. This is the most important part of the process but is often disregarded. Though there are many types of cutting beds, however, we recommend a perforated tabletop. This comprises 18mm thick birch thick plywood. On its top, we use a piece of thick 25mm MDF.
Step 14: The Electronics Parts
Following comprise the electronic parts:
- Power Supply of 48 VDC 6, & Amp
- Driver x 3: Lead shine M542 V2.0
- Stepper Motors x 3: # Nanometers hybrid Nema 23
- Relay: 25A, 230 VAC output, 4-32 VDC input.
- Breakout board for power supply – 5VDC
- Colling Fans Power: 12 VDC
- Cooling Fans x 2 (80mm)
- Limit Switches
Step 15: Enclosing the Electronics
Enclosing the electronic parts is an important part to avoid any electronic hassle and mess. After sketching the arrangement, we recommend making proper alignment using the CAD program as per feasibility.
Step 16: CNC Router Software
For this purpose, you need three software programs as CAD for drawing, CAM for toolpath, and output. This all uses G-code. And the last software is a controller for translating G-code. CamBam instead replaces CAD and CAM and Mach3 however replaces a controller.
Step 17: A Guide to Use CNC Machine
Using can be a bit messy. This is because working with wood allows for much dust and loud noise. They stop dust we use dust shoe. For reducing noise, we, therefore, use machine enclosure.
Step 18: Final Thoughts/ Conclusion
The cnc router parts kit that we build is just an inspiration and we hope that you may take some help and aspiration from it.
For More Information Contact Us Today!