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In-depth Analysis of parts to build a CNC machine

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General Assembling Of The Parts To Build A CNC machine

Parts to build a CNC machine include both electrical and mechanical components. CNC machining is a promising manufacturing technique that ensures precision and accuracy. CNC finds extensive use in areas where a minimum error is not acceptable. The technology has several advantages and it depends on the technical mind of the user what they want to manufacture. Therefore, one can build a CNC machine of their own depending on what specifications they want in their product.

This article discusses the parts to build a CNC machine and provides a brief guide on what tools are effective to build a machine of your own.

parts to build a CNC machine

CNC Machining Technique

CNC machining is one of the most promising manufacturing techniques to fabricate finished products. It is a subtractive manufacturing technique that makes it unique and different from injection molding and 3D printing which are additive manufacturing techniques. The latter techniques require the addition of material to produce the required shape part. On the contrary, the CNC machining technique works by removing the material leaving a finished product of the required size and shape.

The CNC technique ensures the maximum attainable precision required in the areas of aerospace, military and defense, and medical industries. These industries need accurate and precise parts for manufacturing. A slight error in any of the parts can result in extreme financial damage and can risk human lives. Therefore, the CNC technique has dominated the manufacturing world as it offers the highest level of accuracy and precision.

How Does The CNC Ensure Precision In Manufactured Parts

How does the CNC machining technique fabricate the products with the highest level of precision? As the name suggests, the CNC or the computer numeric control works on the CAD or computer-aided design. The clients provide a CAD model which contains all the specifications and requirements of the product. A CAM or computer-aided manufacturing interprets the CAD model and converts it into a G-code that is the language understood by CNC.

The CNC machining employs a cutting tool that rotates over the material to remove it. The CAM instructs the CNC about its movement, rotation, and speed. Hence, this is how the CNC machining ensures the maximum level of precision.

Parts To Build A CNC Machine

The technique requires parts to build a CNC machine. The CNC machining divides itself among two major categories; 3-axes and multi-axis CNC machining. Each machine has its applications and specifications and both types require distinctive parts to build a CNC machine. However, all the CNC machining works on the same CAM/CAD model.

Before we do an in-depth analysis of parts to build a CNC machine, let us have a look at the major components of the three major types of CNC machining tools.

CNC Drilling Machine

The CNC drilling machine employs drill bits that rotate over the material to make holes in the job piece. The drill bits rotate over the material and remove the excess pieces of the material. Each drill bit has its specifications and applications. Parts to build a CNC machine drill bits include peck drills, spotting drills, chucking reamers, and screw machine drills. Each drill bit performs its tasks including removal of chips from the workpiece, drilling of holes, enlargement of existing holes, hole production in the absence of pitot holes, respectively.

CNC Milling Machine 

The rotating tool required to remove the material involved in CNC is the multi-point cutting tool. Parts to build a CNC machine milling involve chamfer mills, helical mills, and end mills. The milling machine ensures orientation in both vertical and horizontal directions. The CNC mills are capable of working in both 3-axes and multi-axis milling techniques. Moreover, one can customize several shapes with one CNC milling machine.

CNC Turning Machine 

A CNC turning machine rotates the workpiece around the cutting tool. Parts to build a CNC machine turning or lathe include engine lathe, turret lathes, and special purpose lathes. This machine finds extensive use in threading, finishing, facing, roughing, grooving, undercutting, foaming applications.

In-Depth Analysis Of Parts To Build A CNC Machine

The CNC machines available in the market provide the user with multiple features and applications. However, it is not convenient for everyone to get a CNC machine. Therefore, one needs to know the parts to build a CNC machine. Here are some tips that will help you figure out what you need to build a CNC machine.

The electrical parts you will need include motors, stepper drivers, stepper shield, power supply, control board, processor, etc. For mechanical operations, you will need bearings, supports, guides, washers, spacers, screws, bolts, nuts, bearings, cutting tools, frames, etc.

Steps To Assemble The CNC Machine

The steps you need to follow while designing a CNC machine depend on the applications and purpose of building the machine. However, the generic steps that you need to follow will include;

CAD/CAM Design

Before you start designing your CNC machine, prepare the design of the workpiece that you aim to fabricate. Prepare a rough sketch and then convert it into the CAD model.

Gather The Parts

The next step is to gather all the necessary parts according to the specification of your finished product. The parts mentioned above are some of the most generic components you will be needing to build a CNC machine.

Frame Construction

Once you gather all the parts, you need to construct a frame. Using metal to construct the frame will give reliability to your machine. The size of the frame depends on the size of the products you will be manufacturing.

Rotational Axes

Build a CNC machine in a manner that should at least give a 3-axes rotation. For that purpose, you need to use guard rails and bearings to allow your machine to move in x, y, z axes.


Once you have assembled all the hardware components, you now need to add a motor to your machine that will drive the rotating tool. Moreover, the motor should be powerful enough to rotate the tool over the material in all three axes.


The motor you install in your CNC only allows the rotation of the cutting tool. To make your tool work linearly, you will need to add a spindle. Hence, your cutting tool will rotate linearly in the up and down positions.


Following the above steps, you will build the structure of your machine. So the next step is to add a controller that acts as a brain to your system. Moreover, add this stage you will also add the software that will interpret the CAD model to the language understood by CNC i.e. G-code.

Cutting Tool

The last step is to install the cutting tool that will rotate with the help of the motor and spindle. Several sizes and threads of tools are available in the market. So you can choose any tool according to your specifications. Thus, your CNC machine is ready to start fabricating parts.


To sum up, parts to build a CNC machine include electrical parts including motor, spindle, boards, etc, and mechanical parts including cutting tools, metals, frame construction, etc. This article also discusses the major steps involved in the building of a CNC machine. However, every CNC machine involves different parts but the general steps remain the same.

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parts to build a CNC machine


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